Radiocarbon dating method works
Its many achievements, preserved in its art and monuments, hold a fascination that continues to grow as archaeological finds expose its secrets.This article focuses on Egypt from its prehistory through its unification under Menes (Narmer) in the 3rd millennium wealth came from the fertile floodplain of the Nile valley, where the river flows between bands of limestone hills, and the Nile delta, in which it fans into several branches north of present-day Cairo.In antiquity, as now, the most favoured location of settlements was on slightly raised ground near the riverbank, where transport and water were easily available and flooding was unlikely.Until the 1st millennium , Egypt was not urbanized to the same extent as Mesopotamia.In addition, the Egyptians had a great interest in, and knowledge of, most species of mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish in their environment.Most Egyptians were probably descended from settlers who moved to the Nile valley in prehistoric times, with population increase coming through natural fertility.It may have been used as a food crop, and it certainly was used to make rope, matting, and sandals.
At first, relatively little cultural contact came by way of the Mediterranean Sea, but from an early date Egypt maintained trading relations with the Lebanese port of Byblos (present-day Jbail).
Nubia was significant for Egypt’s periodic southward expansion and for access to products from farther south.
West of the Nile was the arid Sahara, broken by a chain of oases some 125 to 185 miles (200 to 300 km) from the river and lacking in all other resources except for a few minerals.
In various periods there were immigrants from Nubia, Libya, and especially the Middle East.
They were historically significant and also may have contributed to population growth, but their numbers are unknown.